Vis Clinic


4825 East Douglas Ave. Suite 100 | Wichita, KS 67218

Laboratory Services

Explore Our Lab Testing Services

Vis Clinic provides a complete array of laboratory testing for all patient needs, both conventional and nutritional.

Please choose a Category below, then select a Test to view full details.

      Nutrient Testing:

      Overwhelming scientific evidence confirms that vitamin deficiencies are associated with disease processes and the overall condition of one’s health. Vitamin, mineral and antioxidant deficiencies have been shown to suppress immune function and contribute to chronic degenerative processes such as arthritis, cancer, Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    • SpectraCell’s Comprehensive Nutritional Panel

      SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. is a clinical laboratory that specializes in micronutrient testing. This patented process resulted from 18 years of research at the University of Texas. The micronutrient tests measures how micronutrients are actually functioning within your white blood cells. SpectraCell’s WBC Tests Are More Advanced Than other Laboratory Tests.

      Before the introduction of Spectracells tests, many diagnosis and risk assessments were based on clinical observation and measurements of static levels of certain nutrients in serum. Static serum levels are not always representative indicators for assessing cell metabolism and utilization.

      SpectraCell’s micronutrient testing offers a unique means to scientifically assess the intracellular requirements of micronutrients that play an important role in overall health and wellness. The Comprehensive Nutritional Panel measures the biochemical functions of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and antioxidants, providing a powerful clinical assessment tool for the Vis Clinic's Doctors.

      The Comprehensive Nutritional Panel includes the following:

      Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Biotin, Folate, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K

      Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Chromium

      Asparagine, Glutamine, Serine, Cysteine

      Alpha Lipoic Acid, Coenzyme Q10, Glutathione and Spectrox™ (antioxidant burden assessment)

      Fructose Sensitivity, Glucose-Insulin Metabolism

      Oleic Acid

      Choline, Inositol, Carnitine

    • Essential and Metabolic Fatty Acid Analysis

      Essential and Metabolic Fatty Acids Analysis evaluates levels of red blood cell membrane fatty acids. Imbalances of fatty acids can significantly influence inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, pregnancy, hyperactivity, depression, and many other conditions.

      Fatty acids comprise some of the most essential nutrients in the human diet. They are critical for cell membrane structure and function as well as local “hormonal” signaling. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are transformed into local hormonal mediators called eicosanoids. Eicosanoids regulate all stages of inflammation, including initiation, propagation and termination. This process is vital to the ability of the body’s immune system to repair and protect itself. Fatty acids are also crucial components of neural membranes and receptors that ensure proper intracellular communication within the brain and nervous system.

      The Clinical Significance of Fatty Acids:
      The number of diseases whose clinical course can be affected by fatty acid therapy is enormous. These include:

      • Inflammatory disorders • Cardiovascular disease • Hormonal disorders • Autoimmune disorders • Arthritis • Senile neurological degeneration • Mental and behavioral disorders such as depression and ADHD • Hair and skin related conditions, such as dermatitis, alopecia, brittle nails coarse dry hair and frequent infections

      The Omega-6 / Omega-3 Ratio:
      EFA imbalances have been cited by some experts as the most widespread nutritional problem in modern times.
      • The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fats has increased dramatically due to the widespread use of vegetable oils, rising from about 4:1 for Americans at the beginning of the twentieth century to about 20:1 at the present time.
      • Increased consumption of saturated fats and decreased consumption of omega-3 oils (cold water fish and flaxseed oil) have also contributed to the growing prevalence of these imbalances.

      Essential and Metabolic Fatty Acids Analysis includes:
      24 Fatty Acids and 17 Fatty Acid Ratios:
      Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, Saturated fatty acids, Monounsaturated fatty acids, Transisomers (Trans Fats), Metabolic pathways, Fatty acid ratios and percent’s

    • Amino Acid Profile (Plasma)

      In addition to pinpointing problems in amino acid absorption and determining essential amino acid imbalances, the plasma amino acid test includes evaluation of limiting, branched chain, and essential and non-essential amino acids. It also identifies several functional categories, such as neuroendocrine, vascular, collagen status, and detoxification, along with five calculated ratios, and identifies vitamin and mineral insufficiencies.

      Plasma Amino Acids
      Fasting plasma levels represent a homeostatic balance between supply and utilization of amino acids making this specimen option ideal for repeated assessments to monitor progress of treatment. Collecting a fasting plasma specimen from a patient removes recent dietary intake effects. The following factors can effect changes over time in plasma:

      • Chronic dietary intake
      • Digestive efficiency
      • Hepatic uptake
      • Skeletal muscle's ability to maintain transamination

      Why is amino acid testing important?
      Amino acids, known as the "building blocks" of proteins, are found in every tissue of the body. They play a major role in nearly every chemical process that affects both physical and mental function including the formation of ligaments, tendons, bones, and antibodies, as well as regulation of enzymes and blood transport proteins. Twenty different amino acids are used to synthesize proteins.

      The human body can synthesize all of the amino acids necessary to build proteins except for ten called the "essential amino acids". These ten must be included in the diet or supplemented to be in adequate supplies. Failure to obtain enough of even 1 of the 10 essential amino acids has serious health implications and can result in degradation of the body's proteins. Muscle and other protein structures may be dismantled to obtain the one amino acid that is needed.

      Amino acids have more diverse functions than any other nutrient group, including:
      • Gastrointestinal function
      • Cellular energy production
      • Detoxification
      • Neurotransmitter metabolism
      • Muscle catabolism
      • Collagen
      • Nutritional markers
      • Vascular function

      Conditions Associated with Amino Acid Changes in Plasma:
      • Cardiovascular disease
      • Depression
      • Anxiety
      • Insomnia
      • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
      • Multiple sclerosis
      • Rheumatoid arthritis
      • Epilepsy
      • Congestive heart failure
      • Impotence/Erectile pain syndromes
      • Multiple chemical sensitivities
      • Detoxification disorders
      • Autism Spectrum Disorders
      • Alzheimer’s Disease
      • Hypothyroidism
      • Arrhythmias
      • Hypertension
      • ADD/ADHD
      • Infertility

      Amino Acid Testing includes:

      Alpha-Aminoadipic Acid
      Alpha-Amino-N-Butyric Acid
      Aspartic Acid
      Beta-Aminoisobutyric Acid
      Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
      Glutamic Acid

      Glutamic Acid/Glutamine
      Tryptophan/LNAA (Large Neutral Amino Acids)

    • RBC (Red Blood Cell) Elements

      Analysis of red blood cells provides the best diagnostic tool for assessing the status of elements that have important functions inside cells or on blood cell membranes. Blood cell element levels are useful for assessing cardiac influences, anti-inflammatory processes, anemia, immunological function, glucose tolerance and other disorders that are associated specifically with zinc deficiency.

      Red Blood Cell (RBC) Mineral Testing is an invaluable diagnostic method for assessing insufficiency or excess of elements that have important functions within cells or on blood cell membranes.

      RBC element levels are very useful for assessing:

      Cardio-tonic influences (magnesium, potassium)
      Anti-inflammatory processes (selenium, copper, zinc)
      Anemia (copper, iron)
      Immunological function (zinc, copper, magnesium)
      Glucose tolerance (chromium, manganese, and possibly vanadium)

      Disorders specifically associated with zinc deficiency also are addressed by this analysis. These disorders include loss of visual acuity, dysgeusia, dermatitis, poor wound healing, alopecia, amino acid malabsorption, sexual impotence, decreased production of testosterone, depressed immune function, and growth retardation.

      Accurate assessment of essential element status is highly recommended for the determination of appropriate supplementation. The absorption, transport and metabolism of essential elements is highly integrated and regulated. Inappropriate supplementation or dietary imbalance of elements can have significant adverse health effects. For example, excess intake of zinc or molybdenum can result in copper deficiency and, although essential, excess retention of manganese can have serious neurotoxic effects.

      RBC element analysis is also useful for the assessment of ongoing or very recent exposure to specific toxic elements that accumulate preferentially in erythrocytes. These toxic elements include arsenic, cadmium, lead, methylmercury and thallium. It is important to keep in mind that elevated levels of the toxic elements in these cells reflect only recent or ongoing exposure and do not provide information about the net retention of the metals in the body.

      RBC element analysis should be performed prior to and intermittently throughout the course of detoxification/chelation therapy. Monitoring essential element status is necessary to identify needs for and effectiveness of supplementation. Replacement and maintenance of adequate levels of essential nutrients can markedly reduce the apparent adverse “side effects” associated with the use of detoxification agents, per se, and the general effects of mobilization of toxic elements. It is important to note that some diseases are associated with abnormal levels of blood cell elements that could be misleading with respect to nutritional status. For example, blood cell copper can be temporarily elevated during inflammatory response while liver levels are not.

      The Red Blood Cell Element Test includes:
      Essential Minerals: Boron, Chromium, Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Phosphorus, Potassium, Selenium, Vanadium, Zinc; Toxic Elements: Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, Thallium

    • Metabolic Analysis Profile (Urine)-Organic Acid Test

      The Metabolic Analysis Profile assesses urine metabolites in order to evaluate four critical areas of metabolism: gastrointestinal function, cellular energy production, neurotransmitter processing, and amino acid/organic acid balance as influenced by vitamin/mineral cofactors. Results can be used to address chronic systemic complaints ranging from fatigue and mood disorders to headaches, muscular/joint pain, and digestive problems.

      The Metabolic Analysis Profile is a urinary assessment of 39 key organic acids grouped according to their primary roles in the following four central areas of metabolism.

      1. Gastrointestinal Function

      This profile measures eight markers that can reveal malabsorption and dysbiosis. These imbalances can be addressed to improve gut health and to help prevent or alleviate: Chronic digestive problems, common causes of nutritional deficiency, yeast overgrowth, cognitive impairment, gastrointestinal distress, and degenerative conditions.

      2. Energy Production

      This profile assesses metabolites that serve as important intermediate in the citric acid (Krebs) cycle. This cycle supplies the body with its primary energy needs, converting 90% of food energy into cellular energy. This subpanel also includes:

      • Carbohydrate metabolites that can signal impaired glucose metabolism

      • Markers that help evaluate the breakdown of fats and production of cholesterol

      • A marker measuring the production of coenzyme Q10

      Imbalances of cellular energy metabolites are linked with chronic fatigue, accelerated cell breakdown, and unhealthy aging.

      3. Neurotransmitter Metabolites

      A special grouping of neurotransmitter metabolites serve as important diagnostic indicators of abnormal metabolism that can underlie many key aspects of neuropsychiatric function. These markers are urinary metabolites of powerful neurotransmitters that act on the central nervous system, including: Epinephrine, Dopamine, and Serotonin. These substances can profoundly influence patterns of stress response, emotional well-being, cognition and sleep.

      4. Assessment of Nutrient Sufficiency

      This test provides a functional assessment of nutrient sufficiency and usage that covers a broad range of vitamins, coenzymes, elements, enzyme activators and other nutrients. An analysis of amino acid metabolites which require vitamin and mineral cofactors for their metabolism can hint at deficiencies of: vitamins B6, B12 and C, Magnesium, copper, iron, and various amino acids.

      Detoxification / Environmental Toxicity

    • Chlorinated Pesticide Profile (Serum)

      The Chlorinated Pesticides Profile can help identify when a patient has been exposed to certain pesticides and insecticides, and how high a body burden of chlorinated pesticides the patient is carrying. This panel looks at the most commonly found chlorinated pesticides, which have national reference ranges that have been documented to cause adverse health problems. Levels are given both in parts per million (PPM) and as lipid-adjusted amounts so the clinician can best estimate the total body burden of these compounds.

      Why perform chlorinated pesticide exposure testing?

      Chlorinated pesticides have been identified in over 98% of all persons studied, have an affinity for lipid-rich tissues, and are stored in various organs and adipose tissues. These toxins also bioaccumulate in our bodies, increasing our toxic body burden over time, are powerful mitochondrial toxins, and may be the root cause of many chronic illnesses.

      Most chlorinated pesticides have been banned for use in the United States; however some of these pesticides and insecticides are still in use around the world. Our biggest routes of pesticide exposure are ingestion through our food from pesticide residue, and our drinking water as the chemicals leech through soil into drinking water reservoirs. These chemicals are also passed to infants through breastfeeding and trans-placental transfer.

      Direct skin contact with chlorinated pesticides can cause necrosis of skin and gums, itching, swelling, blistering, and epidermolysis.

      The primary toxic effect of this family of pesticides is at the site of nervous tissue and muscle membranes. These poisons are absorbed across the gut and interfere with nerve impulse transmissions. In humans, this interference normally shows up as chronic neurological problems including mood disorders and difficulties with learning and memory. These poisons have also been shown to cause fatigue, obesity, diabetes, certain cancers, immune dysregulation, allergies, heart disease, and a host of other problems.

      What are chlorinated pesticides?

      Chlorinated pesticides were first placed into wide-spread agricultural use after World War II and are made up of ringed structures to which numerous chlorine atoms are attached. Of the chlorinated pesticides, DDT is the most well-known.

      These pesticides are insoluble in water, persist in soil, bioaccumulate in fatty tissues, and also biomagnify through our food chain.

      Symptoms of exposure:

      • Allergies

      • Asthma

      • Cardiovascular disease

      • Cell mediated immune deficiency

      • Certain cancers

      • Fatigue

      • Frequent infections

      • High blood pressure

      • Learning difficulties

      • Mood disorders

      Sources of exposure:

      • Consuming contaminated fruits, vegetables, grains, meat, dairy, and fish

      • Drinking contaminated water

      • Inhaling chemical vapors or contaminated dust, soil, and housedust

      • Direct skin contact

      • Bioaccumulation from mother

      Toxicity often lies at the root of many chronic illnesses, such as:

      • Allergies

      • Asthma

      • Autoimmune conditions

      • Brain fog

      • Certain cancers

      • Chemical sensitivities

      • Chronic bacterial, fungal, and viral infections

      • Chronic neurological illnesses

      • Cognitive difficulties

      • Development disorders

      • Diabetes

      • Fatigue

      • Fibromyalgia

      • Hormonal imbalances

      • Infertility

      • Mood disorders

      • Obesity

      • Tremors

      The Chlorinated Pesticides Profile includes:

      Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)

      Heptachlor Epoxide







    • PCB Profile (Serum)

      The Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Profile can help identify which of the most toxic PCBs a patient has been exposed to and the body burden of the patient. We look at the most commonly found PCBs, which have national reference ranges that have been documented to cause adverse health problems. Levels are given both in parts per million (PPM) and as lipid-adjusted amounts so the clinician can best estimate the total body burden of these compounds.

      Why perform polychlorinated biphenyl testing?

      Once PCBs enter the body, they are absorbed by our fat cells and stored. Since PCBs are not water-soluble, they are not excreted from the body and accumulate over a person's lifetime, increasing that person's body burden of PCBs. Polychlorinated biphenyl testing can help you determine the extent of this PCB burden.

      In adults, a heavy burden of PCBs over time can cause impairments in the brain, nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system, and may cause fertility issues.

      A PCB burden affects children more than adults.  PCBs are most often passed to children through breastfeeding and trans-placental transfer.  PCB exposure in children can impede neurobehavioral and immune system development.  These impediments may cause delayed neurobehavioral development in motor skills and short term memory, and lower scores on intelligence, psychomotor, and behavioral tests.  A lowered immune system can create many problems in children including allergies, sensitivities, and chronic infections.

      What are PCBs?

      PCBs were used as lubricants and coolants in transformers, capacitors, and electronic equipment because of a high resistance to heat.  Due to the stability of PCBs, unfortunately they also do not break down in the environment and bioaccumulate in animals and humans.

      PCBs were banned from use in the US in 1979 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).  However, due to the persistence of PCBs in the environment, PCBs continue to leach into soil and groundwater from hazardous waste sites and landfills.  Since PCBs bioaccumulate, we are exposed through our food chain by eating fish, meat, and dairy products, especially from areas of the country considered contaminated.

      Symptoms of PCB exposure:

      • Severe acne

      • Rash

      • Eye irritation

      • Liver damage

      • Weakened immune system

      • Chemical sensitivity

      • Allergies

      • Obesity

      • Fatigue

      • Certain cancers

      • Developmental disorders

      Symptoms of PCB exposure in children:

      • Impaired neurological development such as

      • Abnormal behavior responses

      • Decreased motor skills

      • Decreased short-term memory

      • Decreased intelligence

      • Lowered immune system

      • Allergies

      • Chronic infections

      • Chemical sensitivity

      Sources of PCB exposure:

      • Consuming contaminated food such as fish, meat, and dairy products

      • Drinking contaminated well water

      • Living near hazardous waste sites

      • Using old fluorescent lighting fixtures or electronics

      • Working with PCB transformers, hydraulic fluids, and other PCB-containing compounds

      Toxicity often lies at the root of many chronic illnesses, such as:

      • Allergies

      • Asthma

      • Autoimmune conditions

      • Brain fog

      • Certain cancers

      • Chemical sensitivities

      • Chronic bacterial, fungal, and viral infections

      • Chronic neurological illnesses

      • Cognitive difficulties

      • Development disorders

      • Diabetes

      • Fatigue

      • Fibromyalgia

      • Hormonal imbalances

      • Infertility

      • Mood disorders

      • Obesity

      • Tremors

      The Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Profile includes:

      Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls

      2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118)

      3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)

      2,3,3',4,4',5-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 156)

      3,3',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl(PCB 169)

      Non-dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls

      2,4,4',5-Tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 74)

      2,2',3,4,4',5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 138)

      2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153)

      2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-Heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB 180)

    • Pthalates and Parabens Profile (Urine)

      The Phthalates & Parabens Profile can help identify everyday exposures to toxins from the use of items such as personal care products and plastic food containers. Environmental toxins should be evaluated as a "first step" to help patients get back on the road to wellness.

      Why assess phthalate and paraben levels?

      Exposure to phthalates and parabens is more common than you may realize. Phthalates and parabens are often classified as xenoestrogens, foreign compounds in the body functioning as endocrine disruptors by binding specifically to estrogen receptors.

      Endocrine disruptors are associated with diseases such as:

      • Endometriosis

      • Infertility

      • Breast cancer

      • Ovarian cancer

      • Prostate cancer

      • Testicular cancer

      • Decreased sperm count

      Other health problems associated with daily exposures are:

      • Liver toxicity

      • Immune effects such as allergies and asthma

      • Reproductive toxicity

      • Pubertal development

      Where are phthalates and parabens found?

      Phthalates, also called "plasticizers", are found in numerous everyday products such as:

      • Children's toys

      • Cosmetics

      • Cleaning products

      • Air fresheners

      • Perfumes

      • Furniture

      • Vinyl flooring

      • Plastic food containers

      • Medical products

      Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ester (DEHP) is a common additive to Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). This additive helps make PVC soft and pliable to be molded into eye-pleasing shapes. PVC products are marked with the plastic identification code 3. The analytes measured in this profile are metabolites of DEHP. In perfumes and air fresheners, phthalates are often listed as "fragrance".

      Parabens are used as preservatives to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi in personal care products, such as:

      • Shampoo and conditioners

      • Soaps

      • Makeup

      • Lotions and creams

      • Shaving gels

      • Hair gels

      • Pre-packaged foods

      The Phthalates & Parabens Profile includes:

      mono-ethyl phthalate (MEtP)

      mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP)

      mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP)

      mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)





    • Volatile Solvents Profile – (Whole Blood)

      The Volatile Solvents Profile can help identify a patient's prolonged exposure to the most commonly found volatile solvents that have been shown to cause serious health problems.

      Why run a Volatile Solvent Test?

      Overexposure or chronic exposure to volatile solvents damages the central nervous system and causes chemical-driven liver and kidney damage.  Benzene, in particular, has a severe toxic effect on the hematological system and is a recognized human carcinogen. Other solvents contribute to atrophy of skeletal muscles, loss of coordination, vision problems, and depression of the central nervous system.

      What are Volatile Solvents?

      Volatile solvents are routinely used in industrial processes to manufacture consumer products.  A solvent is a liquid or gas used to dissolve a solid, liquid, or gas to create a new solution.  Each year, annual production of these solvents numbers in the tens of billions of pounds in the United States.

      Air and water pollution are common routes of exposure in both our homes and workplaces. We are also exposed by inhalation or ingestion of car exhaust, paints, glues, adhesives, and lacquer thinners.  These volatile solvents are used in large numbers to produce items in our homes such as furniture, building materials, paint, shoes, cleaning and degreasing agents, inks, pharmaceuticals, and as additives to gasoline. For those living and working in urban areas, the exposure to this class of compounds goes on twenty-four hours a day.

      Solvents are very damaging to bone marrow and have been associated with many of the bone marrow cancers as well as anemia and thrombocytopenia. They are also associated with immune disorders, including autoimmunity, chronic neurologic problems, and infertility.

      Symptoms of Solvent Exposure:

      • Aplastic anemia (low blood cells in bone marrow)

      • Atrophy of skeletal muscles

      • B-cell malignancies

      • Blood dyscrasis (unspecified blood disorder)

      • Bone marrow damage

      • Cancer

      • Chemical bronchitis

      • Chromosomal aberrations

      • Cognitive disorders

      • Conjunctivitis

      • Corneal erosion

      • Defatting dermatitis

      • Dermatitis

      • Erectile dysfunction

      • Erythema (redness due to capillary congestion)

      • Fatigue

      • Headaches

      • Hemolysis

      • Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)

      • Infertility

      • Irritation of eyes and nose

      • Irritation of mucous membranes

      • Keratitis (cornea inflammation)

      • Leukemia

      • Muscular weakness

      • Nausea

      • Paresthesia

      • Parkinsonism

      • Polyneuropathy (neurological disorder)

      • Pulmonary edema (fluid in lungs)

      • Renal damage

      • Skin irritation

      • Thrombocytopenia

      • Tingling/cramps in arms or legs

      • Toxic hepatitis  

      Sources of Solvent Exposure

      • Acrylic nail applications

      • Adhesives/glues

      • Air fresheners

      • Cigarette smoke

      • Detergents

      • Gasoline additives and exhaust

      • Gums

      • Ink

      • Jet fuel exhaust

      • Lacquer thinners

      • Oil and grease extractors

      • Paints

      • Perfumes and fragrances

      • Pesticide inert ingredients

      • Petroleum products

      • Polyesters

      • Reinforced plastics

      • Rubbers

      • Synthetic resins

      Toxicity often lies at the root of many chronic illnesses, such as:

      • Allergies

      • Asthma

      • Autoimmune conditions

      • Brain fog

      • Certain cancers

      • Chemical sensitivities

      • Chronic bacterial, fungal, and viral infections

      • Chronic neurological illnesses

      • Cognitive difficulties

      • Development disorders

      • Diabetes

      • Fatigue

      • Fibromyalgia

      • Hormonal imbalances

      • Infertility

      • Mood disorders

      • Obesity

      • Tremors

      The Volatile Solvents Profile includes:











    • DetoxiGenomic® Profile

      The DetoxiGenomic® Profile evaluates single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased risk of impaired detoxification capacity especially when exposed to environmental toxins. It also identifies individuals potentially susceptible to adverse drug reactions.

      The DetoxiGenomic® Profile includes:

      Phase I: The First Line of Defense

      Cytochrome P-450

      • CYP1A1 • CYP2A6 • CYP2E1 • CYP1C19

      • CYP1B1 • CYP2D6 • CYP2C9 • CYP3A4

      Phase I is the first line of defense in the detoxification of all environmental toxins, including pesticides, herbicides, pollutants, and solvents, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, as well as many of the body’s own waste products (including steroid hormones).

      Phase II: Conjugation of Toxins and Elimination

      Methylation (catechol-O-methyltransferase)

      • COMT

      Polymorphisms may lead to impaired metabolism of the catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and may predispose individuals to anxiety, ADHD, alcoholism, and rapid cycling in bipolar individuals.

      Acetylation (N-acetyl transferase)

      • NAT1 • NAT2

      NAT detoxifies many environmental toxins, including tobacco smoke and exhaust fumes. Polymorphisms may result in slow or rapid acetylation, both associated with increased risk of lung, colon, bladder, or head & neck cancer.

      Glutathione Conjugation (glutathione s-transferase)

      • GSTM1 • GSTT1 • GSTP1

      GST detoxifies many water-soluble environmental toxins, including solvents, herbicides, fungicides, and heavy metals (eg, mercury, cadmium, and lead). Defects in GST activity can contribute to fatigue syndromes and many cancers.

      Oxidative Protection (superoxide dismutase)

      • SOD1 • SOD2

      Mutations affecting these antioxidant enzymes can lead to increased free radical activity and cell damage, and may increase the risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders.

      • Heavy Metal Testing

        Benefits of the Metals Testing:
        • Determine if metal toxicity or mineral deficiency is contributing to your disorder.
        • Monitor the effects of chelation (elimination of heavy metals from the body).
        • Identify if supplementation of important minerals may bring about significant improvements

      • Nutrient and Toxic Elements (6-8 Hour DMSA Testing)

        Some elements can accumulate in tissues causing toxic effects. Metal toxicity is a significant environmental health concern. A toxic load of lead, cadmium, mercury or arsenic is capable of rendering considerable damage to the brain and nervous system, particularly in children. Toxic elements produce their many negative effects through various mechanisms.

        One mechanism, irreversible enzyme inhibition, is illustrated by the anemia caused when lead binds to enzymes in the hemoglobin synthesis pathway. The cancer-inducing effect of arsenic seems to be due to an inhibition of DNA repair. Genotoxicity, in which chromosomes are damaged, is linked to the free radical generation abilities of cadmium, lead and nickel. Mercury causes enzyme poisoning.

        Urine element testing is primarily useful to monitor levels of toxic metals such as aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for special mineral uptake testing. The 6 hour collection profiles are primarily for patients who are receiving oral chelating agents to mobilize toxic elements from body pools.

        The Nutrient & Toxic Elements test includes:




































      • Toxic Element Clearance Profile (24 hour pre and post EDTA chelation urine)

        This Toxic Element Clearance Profile measures urinary excretion of a diverse range of potentially harmful elements, both well known toxics such as lead and mercury, as well as new technology toxics such as niobium.

        The Toxic Element Clearance Profile offers an advanced, comprehensive assessment of toxic and potentially toxic elements excreted in the urine. In addition to measuring classic elemental toxics, this profile includes elements used in medical, aerospace, nuclear and high-tech electronics industries. Use of these potential toxins is increasing because of their growing commercial, industrial, and medical applications.

        Sources of Exposure:

        Accumulations of these toxics can occur in the human body in response to occupational exposures or to environmental exposures from toxic release in air, soil, or industrial waste streams.

        These include:

        • Metal refining • Fabrication of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

        • Alloying • Electronics and computer manufacturing

        • Plating and parts manufacture in aerospace and machine tool industries


        According to the EPA, the U.S. has the largest electronics (including computer) workforce in the world. Exposures to the measured elements can occur in other occupations as well, including:

        • Welding and metal shaping • Military or police service (with weapons use)

        • Plumbing • Handling and disposal of wastes

        • Oil refining • Petrochemical production

        • Manufacture of pigments and coatings


        Health Consequences of Exposure:

        Evidence suggests that chronic toxic element exposure can adversely affect:

        • Energy levels • Neurological development and function

        • Reproductive function • Respiratory, cardiac, hepatic and immune functions

        • Cancer risk • Cognitive and emotional health • Degenerative conditions


        Researchers are discovering detrimental health effects of toxic heavy metals at lower and lower exposure levels. This raises the issue of whether any toxic element level in the body is safe.


        Toxic Element Testing:

        The Toxic Element Clearance Profile assesses urinary excretion of elements acquired through either chronic or acute exposure. The test enables practitioners to effectively monitor the progress of detoxification regimens and nutrient element status during treatment.


        “Provocative” Urine Testing:

        Urine can be collected following the administration of a “challenge” agent such as EDTA, targeting specific toxic elements.  We use a 24 hour Urine collection at Vis Clinic


        The Toxic Element Clearance Profile includes:

        Toxic Elements:











        Nutritional Element:


      Food Intolerance / Sensitivity:

    • Lifestyle Eating and Performance (LEAP 150, LEAP 80, LEAP 50)

      Certain foods, additives and chemicals are capable of triggering immune reactions that are not due to allergies. Chemical mediators released by the immune system are capable of producing a variety of body reactions and symptoms. Avoiding foods that produce such reactions can resolve or at least significantly improve symptoms resulting from eating those foods. Mediator release (MRT) testing measures the release of chemical mediators from white blood cells and platelets in response to specific foods, additives or chemicals. Such chemical reactions indicate sensitivity to these foods or additives.

      The Mediator Release Testing is based on measuring the reaction of various immune mediator chemicals released in response to a food or chemical to which you have become sensitive or intolerant. The result is that when exposed to such foods or chemicals your blood cells release various chemicals that cause an alteration of the ratio of solids (cells) to liquid (serum) in your blood that can be measured. The white blood cells and platelets shrink and the volume of the liquid increases. The degree of change can be measured and reported as negative, mild,  moderate or severe corresponding with the degree of sensitivity to that particular food, additive, or chemical.

      A panel of 150 food and chemicals (123 foods and 27 chemicals) is available.  Smaller panels are also available. The foods or chemicals producing abnormal reactions are summarized in color tables.  A comprehensive report booklet containing a result's based specific elimination diet plan is also included.


      Conditions which may benefit from MRT testing include:

      Migraines, (IBS) irritable bowel syndrome, fatigue, fibromyalgia, headaches, autistic behavior, anxiety, depression, ADD, sinus and ear, nose and throat problems, vomiting syndromes, Celiac, chronic stomachaches, bladder problems, arthritis, eczema, hives, and chronic fatigue syndrome.


      The Leap 150 Includes:

      Almond, Amaranth, American cheese, Apple, Apricot, Asparagus, Avocado, Banana, Barley, Basil, Beef, Beet, Black pepper, Blueberry, Broccoli, Buckwheat, Cabbage, Cane Sugar, Cantaloupe, Carob, Carrot, Cashew, Catfish, Cauliflower, Cayenne pepper, Celery Cheddar cheese, Cherry, Chicken, Cinnamon, Clam, Cocoa, Coconut, Codfish, Coffee, Cola, Corn, Cottage cheese, Cow’s milk, Crab, Cranberry, Cucumber, Cumin, Dill, Egg, Eggplant, Garbanzo bean, Garlic, Goat’s Milk, Grape, Grapefruit, Green pea, Green pepper, Hazelnut, Honey, Honeydew, Hops, Kamut, Lamb, Leek, Lemon, Lentil, Lettuce, Lima bean, Mango, Maple syrup, millet, Mint, Mushroom, Mustard, Oat, Olive, Onion, Orange, Oregano, Papaya, Paprika, parsley, peach, Peanut, Pear, Pecan, Pineapple, Pinto bean, Pistachio, Plum, Pork, Quinoa, Raspberry, Rice, Rye, Salmon, Scallop, Sesame, Shrimp, Sole, Soybean, Spelt, Spinach, Strawberry, String bean, Sunflower seed, Sweet potato, Tapioca, Tea, Tilapia, Tomato, Tuna, Turkey, Turmeric, Vanilla, Walnut, Watermelon, Wheat, White potato, Yeast mix, Yellow squash, Yogurt, Zucchini

      Chemicals: Acetaminophen, Aspartame, Benzoic acid, Caffeine, Candida Albicans, Capsaicin, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Blue #2, FD&C Green #3, FD&C Red#3, FD&C Red#4, FD&C Red#40, FD&C Yellow #5, FD&C yellow #6, Fructose, Ibuprophen, Lecithin, MSG, Phenylethylamine, Polysorbate 80, Potassium nitrate, Potassium nitrite, Saccharin, Salicylic Acid, Sodium metabisulfite, Sodium sulfite, Solanine, Sorbic acid, Tyramine, Whey


      The Leap 80 Includes:

      American cheese, apple, Banana, barley, beef, black pepper, broccoli, cane sugar, carrot, cauliflower, celery chicken, cinnamon, cocoa, codfish, cola, corn, cow’s milk, egg, garlic, grape, honey, lemon, lettuce mint, mustard, oat, onion, orange, peach, peanut, pear, pineapple, pinto bean pork, rice, rye, salmon, soybean, strawberry, string bean, tomato, tuna, turkey, vanilla, watermelon, wheat, white potato, yeast Acetaminophen, Aspartame, Benzoic acid, Caffeine, Candida Albicans, Capsaicin, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Blue #2, FD&C Green #3, FD&C Red#3, FD&C Red#4, FD&C Red#40, FD&C Yellow #5, FD&C yellow #6, Fructose, Ibuprophen, Lecithin, MSG, Phenylethylamine, Polysorbate 80, Potassium nitrate, Potassium nitrite, Saccharin, Salicylic Acid, Sodium metabisulfite, Sodium sulfite, Solanine, Sorbic acid, Tyramine, Whey mix, zucchini


      The Leap 50 Includes:

      American cheese, apple, Banana, barley, beef, black pepper, broccoli, cane sugar, carrot, cauliflower, celery chicken, cinnamon, cocoa, codfish, cola, corn, cow’s milk, egg, garlic, grape, honey, lemon, lettuce mint, mustard, oat, onion, orange, peach, peanut, pear, pineapple, pinto bean pork, rice, rye, salmon, soybean, strawberry, string bean, tomato, tuna, turkey, vanilla, watermelon, wheat, white potato, yeast mix, zucchini


      Hormonal Health:

    • Female Hormonal Health

      Using a single serum sample, The Female Hormonal Health panel provides a focused overview of sex steroid hormones and their inter-relationships in both pre- and post-menopausal women, helping to better assess the impact of hormonal imbalances on each woman’s health.

      Sex steroids affect a wide array of functions in the body. All of these hormones are inter-dependent rather than functioning in isolation; hence a comprehensive evaluation is crucial toward an understanding of hormonal imbalance. Furthermore, hormonal imbalances are not always clinically apparent, yet may be associated with a variety of clinically significant disorders:




      Menstrual irregularities

      Infertility / Miscarriage

      Cardiovascular Disease

      Ovarian cysts

      Symptoms of Peri- or Post-menopause

      Breast Cancer

      Uterine fibroids

      Autoimmune Disease

      Endometrial Cancer

      Sexual dysfunction

      Hypo- or Hyperthyroidism

      Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

      Vaginal Dryness/Dyspareunia

      Insulin Resistance

      Fibrocystic Breast Disease


      Chronic stress


      The Female Hormonal Health panel includes:

      Estrogens (Estrone, Estrone Sulfate, Estradiol, Estriol):

      • Secreted from the ovaries pre-menopausally; aromatized from adrenal androgens post-menopausally.

      • Deficient estrogens augment bone resorption, collagen breakdown, dyslipidemia, & menopausal Sx.

      • Excessive estrogen affects PMS, ovarian cysts, fibroids, menstrual irregularities, and breast cancer.



      • Counters effects of estrogen on the endometrium and serves as precursor to other steroid hormones.

      • Low levels pre-menopausally associated with anovulation, infertility, or ‘estrogen-excess’ conditions; post-menopausally may indicate adrenal fatigue and risk of endometrial hyperplasia.


      Binding Proteins (Sex-hormone binding globulin):

      • SHBG binds steroid hormones, regulating the amount of bioavailable (unbound) hormone in the body.

      • SHBG is up- and downregulated by various factors, including testosterone and estrogen.


      Androgens (DHEA-Sulfate, Testosterone, Free Androgen Index):

      • DHEA-S serves as precursor to other androgens that may also be converted to estrogens.

      • Maintains immune function, libido, lean body mass, insulin sensitivity, and the stress response.

      • Testosterone protects against osteoporosis and helps maintains libido and lean muscle mass.

      • Free Androgen Index (calculated using SHBG) represents the amount of bioavailable testosterone.


      Estrogen Metabolism (2-Hydroxyestrone, 16a-Hydroxyestrone, 2:16a-Hydroxyestrone Ratio):

      • 2-OHE1 is a weak metabolite of estrone; 16a-OHE1 is a potent estrogen metabolized to estriol.

      • The 2:16a-OHE1 Ratio serves as a gauge of net estrogen activity in the body.

      • A low 2:16 ratio correlates with breast cancer risk, a high ratio with risk of osteoporosis.

    • Male Hormonal Health

      Testosterone levels peak in most men during their early to mid-20s. Between the ages of 40 and 70, the hormone-producing cells begin to wear away, causing men to lose nearly 60 percent of peak levels. Key symptoms of testosterone deficiency include depression, fatigue, low sex drive, irritability, hair loss, thinning and wrinkling of the skin, weight gain and weakening of bone and muscle tissue. Eventually, hormone imbalances can set the stage for the development of more serious conditions like heart disease, osteoporosis, pre-diabetes and erectile dysfunction. While many popular medications are available to help sustain an erection, none of these drugs work effectively without adequate testosterone. Women are not the only ones taking an active role in managing their quality of life. Men have the same opportunity to benefit from hormonal testing.

      The Male Hormonal Health panel includes:

      Estradiol, Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1), Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), DHEA Sulfate, Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), Free Testosterone, Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

    • Thyroid Profile

      This profile is suggested for patients who have suspected thyroid disorders, autoimmune disorders, low energy, hair loss, depression, low mood, and poor temperature regulation. 

      Tests in this profile include:

      Free Triiodothyronine (fT3): Triiodothyronine is a hormone that is released from the thyroid gland along with thyroxine (T4) and is also converted from T4 after release into circulation. T3 regulates growth and development, metabolism, and body temperature. T3 exhibits greater biological activity and is produced in smaller quantities than T4.  Free T3 (fT3) is the unbound, active form of the hormone.


      Free Thyroxine (fT4): Thyroxine is a thyroid hormone that regulates the metabolism of all cells and tissues in the body.  T4 is also converted (up to 80%) to the more biologically active thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3). Free T4 (fT4) is the unbound, active form of the hormone


      Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH): Thyroid-stimulating hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary gland.  TSH stimulates secretion of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) and also promotes growth of the thyroid gland.

      Brain/Endocrine Health:

    • NeuroSLP

      This profile measures salivary hormones cortisol and melatonin, and urinary neurotransmitters related to sleep. This profile is ideal for individuals experiencing difficulty falling asleep, maintaining sleep, or having restless sleep.

      The NeuroSLP includes the following tests:














      Specimen Types: Non-invasive, night-time saliva (at time of sleep disturbance), and single urine collection

    • Neuroscreen Expanded

      Neurotransmitters (Brain Chemicals) are present throughout the body and are required for proper brain and body functions. When neurotransmitters are imbalanced, patients may experience a wide range of symptoms.


      The Neuroscreenl Expanded test is a non-invasive urine test that identifies biochemical imbalances which guide therapeutic neurotransmitter supportive therapies.


      The test is indicated for the following conditions:

      Fatigue, Anxiety/Panic, Weight issues, Chronic illness, Depression, Migraines, Compulsions/Addictions, Focus/Concentration issues


      The Neuroscreen Expanded panel includes:













    • NeuroAdrenal Expanded

      Neurotransmitters and hormones are present throughout the body and are required for proper brain and body functions. When neurotransmitters and adrenal hormones are imbalanced, patients may experience a wide range of symptoms.


      The Neuroadrenal Expanded test is a non-invasive urine and saliva test that identifies biochemical imbalances which guide therapeutic neurotransmitter and adrenal supportive therapies.


      The test is indicated for the following conditions:

      Fatigue, Anxiety/Panic, Weight issues, Chronic illness, Depression, Migraines, Compulsions/Addictions, Focus/Concentration issues


      The Neuroadrenal Expanded panel includes:














      Cortisol X 4

    • Child Neurotransmitter

      The child neurotransmitter profile includes an easy-to-use adhesive urinary collection bag that is ideal for very young children or children with difficulty collecting urine specimens.


      Neurotransmitters (Brain Chemicals) are present throughout the body and are required for proper brain and body functions. When neurotransmitters are imbalanced, patients may experience a wide range of symptoms.


      The Child Neurotransmitter test is a non-invasive urine test that identifies biochemical imbalances which guide therapeutic neurotransmitter supportive therapies.


      The test is indicated for the following conditions:

      Fatigue, Anxiety/Panic, Weight issues, Depression, Migraines, Compulsions/Addictions, Focus/Concentration issues, Behavioral issues


      The Child Neurotransmitter profile includes the following tests:











    • Pyrroles/ Kryptopyrrole

      Pyroluria," "Pyrroluria," "Pyrolleuria," "Pyrrole Disorder," "Elevated," "B6 Deficiency" and other similar terms are all used to describe variants of the same basic condition: Most commonly called Pyroluria, the root cause is the production of too much "kryptopyrrole" (KP) or "hemepyrrole" (HP) in the blood.


      The symptoms of excess urinary kryptopyrrole first manifest themselves as behavioral abnormalities. Although children tend to be more easily diagnosed than adults, the symptoms are consistent: poor tolerance of physical and emotional stress, mood swings, depression, sensitivity to light, noise and other tactile sensitivities. Later symptoms can range from severe depression to chronic schizophrenia. Accompanying physical symptoms can include pain, seizures, even complete physical debilitation.


      Pyroluria can be responsible for a wide range of behavioral conditions in adults, including chronic depression, paranoia, schizophrenia and even certain types of criminal behavior. Historically, these conditions have been easily misdiagnosed. Thus, early testing is essential for anyone exhibiting such symptoms.


      What is Kryptopyrrole?

      Elevated kryptopyrrole levels result from an abnormality in hemoglobin (the protein that holds iron in red blood cells). Kryptopyrrole has no known function in the body, but it is excreted in urine. It was originally discovered in a urine test in Saskatchewan about 1960 in a patient exhibiting schizophrenic symptoms. Subsequently, researchers began investigating possible relationships to the various types of schizophrenia. Thousands of patients were examined and a long series of double-blind tests were performed.


      The results were extraordinary: There was a clear and measurable relationship between elevated urinary kryptopyrrole and patients exhibiting schizophrenic symptoms. Although not a definitive test for schizophrenia, the results indicated that the presence of elevated urinary kryptopyrrole is often associated with clinical conditions characterized by schizophrenic patients.


      However, there are diagnostic challenges for physicians. Although a substantial proportion of psychiatric diseases can be traced to excess urinary kryptopyrrole, other conditions with a genetic basis, such as Autism, frequently show elevated pyrrole levels. In more general cases there can be emotional symptoms, physical symptoms, or both simultaneously. It is therefore easy to understand how a misdiagnosis can occur, hence the importance of early testing. In formal clinical trials, the following percentages were determined for frequency of elevated pyrrole in a range of test subjects:


      Autism 50% (Audha) 

      Alcoholism 40% (Mathews-Larson) 

      ADHD 30% (Walsh) 


      Depression 70% (Hoffer) 


      Pyroluria is a feature of many behavioral and emotional disorders. Its cause is an inborn error in pyrrole chemistry, resulting in a dramatic zinc and vitamin B6 deficiency. Elevated levels of kryptopyrrole produce symptoms including irritability, anger episodes, poor memory, impaired intellectual function, impaired immune function and inability to deal with stress. Patients are easily identified by their inability to tan, poor dream recall, abnormal fat distribution, and sensitivity to light and sound.


      The decisive laboratory test is analysis for kryptopyrroles in urine. Treatment is centered on zinc and B6 supplements together with omega-6 essential fatty acids. If left undiagnosed and untreated, the condition can lead to a wide range of significant health problems.


      Vitamin B6 is important in the formation of many neurotransmitters. B6 deficiency is associated with agitation, irritability, depression and impaired intellectual function. Kryptopyrrole elevation can also be associated with poor tolerance of physical stress. In advanced cases, severe pain in the joints and extremities may be present.


      Both zinc and B6 supplementation need to be directed by a Vis Clinic Doctor, as too much can be toxic. Use of the correct form of vitamin B6 and zinc is necessary to be effective. Avoiding competing minerals and supplements may also be necessary.

      Bone Health:

    • Bone Resorption Assessment

      Bone Resorption Assessment provides an accurate assessment of the rate of bone turnover in an individual.  This test allows the Vis Clinic Doctors to identify those more likely to develop osteoporosis, to intervene before significant loss has occurred, and to monitor the efficacy of treatment regimens.


      • Leads to 1.5 million fractures per year

      • Affects more than 50% of healthy American women aged 30-40 who are likely to develop vertebral fractures as they age

      • It is important to identify individuals currently losing bone at an accelerated rate so that effective treatment can begin before significant bone loss has occurred.


      Advantages of Urinary Bone Resorption Testing:

      • Biochemical markers are convenient and inexpensive dynamic measures of bone turnover.

      • Biomechanical markers provide immediate information on the rate of bone loss, thus helping to predict future losses.

      • Static markers of bone mass, such as photon absorptiometry (bone scans), help to diagnose osteoporosis by establishing the amount of bone that has already been lost. They do not provide data on the rate of loss.

      • Bone scans, unlike biochemical markers, are inconvenient for regular monitoring of therapies due to invasiveness and expense.


      Measuring Bone Resorption:

      Pyridinium crosslinks are stabilizers of collagen molecules. Bone collagen contains both

      pyridinoline (PYD), which is reflective of collagen loss of all types, and its component

      deoxypyridinoline (DPD), which specifically reflects bone collagen.


      Presence in the urine of higher than normal amounts of PYD and DPD indicate a rapid rate of bone loss.

      Crosslink excretion is greatly increased in patients with osteoporosis, as well as in a number of other conditions. These include Paget’s disease, primary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia. Measurement of PYD crosslinks has also proven useful in arthritic diseases, connective tissue disorders, cancer metastasis and alcoholic bone disease.


      Bone Resorption Testing includes:

      Urinary pyridinium crosslinks (PYD +DPD)


      Immune Support:

    • Anti-Candida Antibody, Candida Immune Complex

      Candida-Related-Complex is a subacute gastrointestinal overgrowth of Candida albicans. Candida related complex is a polysymptomatic illness with multiple complaints referable to various organ systems. Most common symptoms are fatigue, mood lability, depression, and an inability to concentrate.  In women, menstrual difficulties; loss of libido, premenstrual accentuation of their symptoms are a common symptom of candida. Other symptoms include - myalgia, aching, heart palpitations, wheezing, sinusitis, bloating, gas, constipation or diarrhea, pruritis, urticarial, persistent vaginal discharge, cystitis, food cravings of foods rich in carbohydrates, or yeast, mold sensitivity, and multiple food and chemical intolerances



      Candida immune complexes contain IgG Candida antibodies, Candida antigen and fragments of complement. Elevations of these complexes correlate with the clinical symptoms related to chronic Candidiasis, and diminish with effective Candida treatment.

      Elevated levels of IgA Candida antibody titers are indicative of local mucosal infections, including the vagina, skin, urethra, and GI tract.

      Chronic candidiasis can be positively diagnosed by the determination of high serum levels of IgG and IgM antibodies against Candida albicans. High levels of IgG antibody titers can be indicative of past or ongoing Candida infection.


      Candida Testing Includes:

      Candida Immune Complex, IgG Candida Antibody, IgA Candida Antibody, and IgM Candida Antibody

    • Chronic Viral Disease Evaluation

      This test evaluates the status of infections for Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus

      Chronic Viral Disease testing includes:

      CMV IgG,CMV IgM, EBV VCA IgM, EBV VCA IgG, EBV Diffuse Antigen, EBEA IgG, EBV Nuclear Ab, EBEA IgG, EBV Nuclear Ab, EBEA IgM, Human Herpes HHV6 IgG

      Gastrointestinal Health:

    • Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis w/Parasitology 1.0

      The Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis (CDSA) is Genova’s original non-invasive evaluation of gastrointestinal function. This assay helps pinpoint imbalances, provides clues about current symptoms, and warns of potential problems should imbalances progress.

      The CDSA 1.0 evaluates digestion and absorption, bacterial balance and metabolism, yeast and immune status for patients with irritable bowel syndrome, indigestion, malabsorption, and other GI-related problems. Additionally, Genova offers a parasitology component with the CDSA test that evaluates for parasites using microscopic examination and EIA testing.

      CDSA with Parasitology 1.0 includes:

      Digestion Markers: An indirect evaluation of digestive function, providing insight into adequate digestive enzyme production and maldigestion. Markers include Chymotrypsin, Putrefactive Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs), Meat Fibers and Vegetable Fibers.

      Absorption Markers: Elevated levels of the listed fatty acids may indicate maldigestion, malabsorption, altered transit time, and small bowel bacterial overgrowth. Markers include: Long Chain Fatty Acids, Phospholipids, Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Total Fecal Fat.

      Metabolic Markers: These markers identify imbalances that are associated with increased toxic burden, small bowel bacterial overgrowth or severe inflammation. Abnormal levels are associated primarily with intestinal conditions, including potential risk for colorectal cancer. Markers include Beneficial SCFAs, n-Butyrate, Beta-Glucuronidase†, pH, Fecal Lactoferrin, Macroscopic exam, and Occult blood.

      Microbiology Markers: Provides quantitative measures of the beneficial flora Lactobacillis and bifidobacterium as well as additional aerobic flora as they present in culture. These include strict pathogenic bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria and yeast.

      Parasitology: (EIA and microscopic evaluation) This evaluation demonstrates the highest documented recovery rates available (22% positivity rate). It quantifies all ova and parasites identified. Microscopic evaluation for yeast and blood cells is included.

    • Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis w/Parasitology 2.0

      The Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis 2.0 (CDSA 2.0) is the most advanced non-invasive evaluation of specific gastrointestinal imbalances. In addition to identifying general dysfunction, this assay provides direct measures to pinpoint the diagnosis and treatment of patients with many digestive conditions such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

      This test evaluates digestion, absorption, gut flora, and the colonic environment, and is indicated for all chronic GI problems, for acute bowel pattern changes, and for many systemic diseases. Additionally, Genova offers a parasitology component with the CDSA 2.0 that evaluates for parasites using microscopic examination and EIA testing. The test provides a sensitivity panel for treating pathogenic flora.

      Digestive complaints are among the most common reasons that individuals seek medical care. Recent evidence now confirms that GI abnormalities are associated with many conditions outside the GI tract.

      General GI Dysfunction: Indigestion, Constipation, Diarrhea, Gas and Bloating ,Recent use of antibiotics, and GI infection/Dysbiosis

      Extra-intestinal Indications: Osteoporosis, Diabetes, Arthritis, Autoimmune disease, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue, and Abdominal Pain

      Specific GI Indications: Post Inflammatory IBS, Crohns Disease or Ulcerative Colitis (IBD), Family history of IBD, Family history of Gastrointestinal cancers, Pancreatic Insufficiency, and Gallstones.


      CDSA with Parasitology 2.0 includes:

      Digestion/Absorption Markers:

      (Pancreatic Elastase, Putrefactive SCFAs, n-Butyrate)

      • Direct measure of Pancreatic Digestive Enzyme output without interference from digestive supplements, changes in stool transit time or marker variability. Low levels of digestive enzyme output are associated with intestinal and Extra-intestinal conditions.


      Gut Immunology Markers:

      (Calprotectin, Eosinophil Protein X)

      • This quantitative analysis identifies mild, moderate or severe inflammation within the GI tract.

      Elevations of these markers are associated with infection (bacterial, viral, & parasitic), food allergy, NSAID enteropathy, IBD and neoplasia.

      • GI inflammation is associated with Intestinal and Extra-intestinal conditions.


      Metabolic Markers:

      (Short Chain Fatty Acids, pH, Beta-glucuronidase, Bile Acids)

      • Abnormal levels of Short Chain Fatty Acids may indicate alterations in gut flora, insufficient dietary fiber, altered transit time and small bowel bacteria overgrowth.

      • The chemistry markers identify imbalances that are associated with increased toxic burden within the colon, increasing long-term risk for colon and breast cancers.


      Microbiology Markers:

      (Bacteriology, Mycology)

      • Quantitative measures of the beneficial flora Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium

      • Quantitative measures of additional flora, including strict pathogenic bacteria and potentially pathogenic and bacteria and yeast.

      • An imbalance in GI flora is associated with Intestinal and Extra-intestinal conditions.



      (EIA and microscopic evaluation)

      • With the highest documented recovery rates (22% positivity rate), this Parasitology exam quantifies all ova and parasites identified.

      • Includes microscopic evaluation for yeast and blood cells.

    • Comprehensive Parasitology Profile

      The Comprehensive Parasitology Profile is a thorough analysis to detect the presence of intestinal parasites, as well as beneficial intestinal microflora, imbalanced flora, and bacterial or fungal possible pathogens. This stool test can help reveal hidden causes behind acute or chronic conditions that develop from parasitic infection or dysbiosis.


      Susceptibility to Parasite Infection:

      It is generally assumed that travel to a Third World country or the occasional camping trips are prerequisites for acquiring a parasite infection. Owing to a combination of extensive worldwide travel, increasing immigration to the United States, day care centers and other sources of easy transmission, anyone is now susceptible. Diarrheal diseases, in fact, (bacterial as well as parasitic) constitute the greatest worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality.



      Various organisms are increasingly recognized for their potential pathogenicity. For example:

      • Giardia lamblia is the leading cause of intestinal parasitic infection in the United States. Only a few decades ago it was not considered pathogenic.

      • Cryptosporidium, a well-known pathogen in animals, was only recently identified as a human pathogen.

      • Blastocytis hominis is the most frequently observed fecal parasite. Its level of pathogenicity continues to be controversial.


      Pathogenicity, in general, appears to vary depending on the parasite itself, host susceptibility, and the microbiological environment in which the parasite lives.


      Symptoms of Infection:

      The most common symptoms of parasite infection are diarrhea and abdominal pain.

      Other symptoms may include flatulence, anorexia, weight loss, fevers, chills, blood or mucus in the stool, and fatigue.


      Systemic Complaints:

      We generally think of parasite infection as causing acute gastrointestinal symptoms. An increasing number of parasite cases feature systemic complaints not traditionally associated with parasites, such as:

      • Urticaria

      • Reactive arthritis

      • Chronic fatigue, asthma and constipation in individuals who are immunocompromised or whose intestinal flora is chronically imbalanced.


      Diagnosing Parasitic Infections:

      The diagnosis of parasitic infections depends on the laboratory, with detection rates dramatically increasing with more sophisticated procedures. Genova Diagnostics’Comprehensive Parasitology Profile uses the most technologically advanced procedures to accurately identify a wide range of protozoal parasites, including amoebae, flagellates, ciliates, coccidia and microsporidia.

      Specimens are carefully analyzed by highly-trained technicians using computer-enhanced microscopy, new staining procedures, and advanced immunoassay techniques. These accurate detection methods allow for increased detection rates, intensifying the awareness of the important relationship between parasitic infection and a broad spectrum of illnesses.


      Comprehensive Parasitology Profile includes:

      Yeast Culture, Cryptosporidium EIA, Giardia lamblia EIA, Entamoeba histolytica EIA, Bacteriology- aerobic, Bacteriology-anaerobic, Parasitology Identification- Concentrate, Parasitology Identification- Trichrome Stain

    • Intestinal Permeability Assessment

      The Intestinal Permeability Assessment is a powerful and noninvasive assessment of small intestinal absorption and barrier function in the bowel. The small intestine uniquely functions as a digestive/absorptive organ for nutrients as well as a powerful immune and mechanical barrier against excessive absorption of bacteria, food antigens, and other macromolecules. Both malabsorption and increased intestinal permeability (“leaky gut”) are associated with chronic gastrointestinal imbalances as well as many systemic disorders. 


      Increased permeability of the small intestine can:

      • Increase the number of foreign compounds entering the bloodstream.

      • Allow bacterial antigens capable of cross-reacting with host tissue to enter the bloodstream, leading to auto-immune processes.

      • Enhance the uptake of toxic compounds that can overwhelm the hepatic detoxification system and lead to an overly sensitized immune system.


      Increased gut permeability has been observed in a range of disorders such as:

      • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

      • Food allergy

      • Inflammatory joint disease

      • Chronic dermatologic conditions


      Studies have demonstrated that the increased permeability observed in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of these disorders.


      Decreased permeability, on the other hand, appears as a fundamental cause of malabsorption, subsequent malnutrition, and failure to thrive. In certain disease states of the small intestine, such as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, permeability to large molecules may increase while permeability to small molecules decreases, a result of damage to the microvilli. As a result, nutrients become even less available to assist in the detoxification of antigens flooding the system.


      Possible causes of intestinal permeability include:

      • Intestinal infection

      • Ingestion of allergenic foods or toxic chemicals

      • Deficient secretory IgA

      • Trauma and endotoxemia

      • NSAIDs


      Testing Procedure:

      The Intestinal Permeability Assessment directly measures the ability of two non-metabolized sugar molecules to permeate the intestinal mucosa.

      The patient drinks a premeasured amount of lactulose and mannitol. The degree of intestinal permeability or malabsorption is reflected in the levels of the two sugars recovered in a urine sample collected over the next 6 hours.

    • Gluten Sensitivity and Genetic Panel

      If you think you may be gluten sensitive or that you may have intestinal damage due to gluten (i.e., have celiac sprue), the best test providing the most accurate set of information is the Gluten Sensitivity Stool and Gene Panel Complete.

      There are several tests included in this panel:

      The gluten sensitivity stool test looks for the antibodies produced by your body against gluten, the tissue transglutaminase test determines if gluten has caused an autoimmune reaction in your body that can attack and damage the intestine and other tissues of the body, the malabsorption test assesses whether your intestine is malabsorbing dietary nutrients because of damage, even slightly so, by gluten (or perhaps other factors), and the gene test assesses your risk based on your genetic predisposition.

      Cardiovascular Health:

    • SpectraCell’s LPP+/Lipoprotein Particle Comprehensive Panel with Homocysteine and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein

      Do Cholesterol Numbers Really Assess Cardiovascular Risk? It appears that Lipoprotein Particle Numbers (LPP) really tell the story.


       LPP™ Testing is essential to identifying at-risk patients. Up to 50 percent of those who have suffered heart attacks had “normal” cholesterol numbers. How can the large discrepancy between accurate diagnosis and standard cholesterol testing be prevented? Simply by testing the LDL (low density lipoprotein) particle numbers using the Lipoprotein Particle Profile™ (LPP™) from SpectraCell Laboratories.


      Cholesterol testing has historically been used as the standard indicator for cardiovascular disease classified as HDL (good) or LDL (bad). However, it is actually the lipoprotein particles that carry the cholesterol throughout the body, not necessarily the cholesterol within them, that are responsible for key steps in plaque production and the resulting development of cardiovascular disease.


      LPP™ is an advanced cholesterol testing technology which accurately measures both the density and number of lipoprotein particles.


      Measuring the lipoprotein subgroups is the only way to evaluate new risk factors, which is crucial for an accurate assessment of cardiovascular risk – according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP).


      NCEP new Risk Factors:

      • Small, dense LDL: these atherogenic particles are easily oxidized and penetrate the arterial endothelium to form plaque

      • Lp(a): this small, dense LDL is involved in thrombosis

      • RLP (Remnant Lipoprotein): is very atherogenic, has a similar composition and density of plaque, is believed to be a building block of plaque and does not need to be oxidized like other LDL particle

      • HDL2b: positively correlates with heart health because it is an indicator of how well excess lipids are removed


      Cardiovascular risk increases with a higher LDL particle count. With a higher non-HDL lipoprotein count the probability of particle penetration of the arterial wall rises, regardless of the total amount of cholesterol contained in each particle. On average, the typical particle contains 50 percent cholesterol.


      More than 20 percent of the population has cholesterol-depleted LDL, a condition in which a patient’s cholesterol may be “normal” but their lipoprotein particle number, and hence their actual risk, could be much higher than expected. This is especially common in persons whose triglycerides are high or HDL is low. In the population with a cholesterol-depleted LDL, there can be up to a 40 percent error in risk assessment.


      LPP+ includes:

      Lipoprotein Fractionation

      Lipoprotein Particle Numbers


      C-Reactive Protein-hs


      Lipoprotein (a)


      Conventional Testing:

    • Conventional lab testing through LabCorp

      Please call Vis Clinic to inquire about the entensive options available for conventional lab tests.

      About LabCorp:
      Recognized for our innovation, quality, and customer convenience, LabCorp delivers timely, accurate results for improved patient care. With scientific expertise in esoteric testing, genomics, and clinical and anatomic pathology, LabCorp performs more than one million tests on approximately 400,000 samples each day. LabCorp is a pioneer in applying advances in medicine and science to laboratory testing, with more than 35 years of experience in serving physicians and their patients.


Monday, Tuesday, Thursday*
  8:15 am - 5:00 pm
  * Closed for Lunch
    1:00 - 2:00 pm

  8:15 am - 5:00 pm
  * Closed for Lunch, Meetings & Events
    11:45 am - 2:00 pm

  8:00 am - 1:00 pm


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XYMOGEN Supplements

Always available onsite at Vis Clinic, Xymogen products can also be purchased online by using the official WholeScripts eStore.


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